Omega-3 Deficiency, Supplementation and Neurological Benefits in Childhood ADHD

source:
Review, Omega-3 Deficiency, Supplementation and Neurological Benefits in Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Michelle Soler

 

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    Question #1
    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are:
    A: a. Inflammatory, vasodilatory, thromboticB: Anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, vasodilatoryC: Anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, vasoconstrictiveD: Both b & c

    Question #2
    It is estimated that Attention Deficit Disorder affects:

    A: 7.3% of children and adolescents worldwideB: 10.3 % of children and adolescents worldwideC: 12.3% of children and adolescents worldwideD: 5.3% of children and adolescents worldwide

    Question #3
    Milte and Colleagues (2011) found the following in children with ADHD (select the most accurate choice):

    A: Higher erythrocyte levels of Omega-3 PUFAs associated with lower anxietyB: Lower Omega-6 PUFAs associated with poorer spelling, reading, vocabulary and attentionC: Higher DHA associated with better readingD: Both a & c

    Question #4
    Milte and colleagues concluded:

    A: Lower omega-3 PUFAs in ADHD are related to a learning difficulty subgroup and may partially explain mixed results in previous studiesB: Children with ADHD and learning difficulties must have lower dietary intakes of omega-3 PUFAsC: Children with ADHD without learning difficulties have higher requirements and difficulty metabolising omega-3 PUFAs than children with learning difficultiesD: Both a & c

    Question #5
    Imbalance of PUFAs in central nervous system cell membrane phospholipid is associated with neuro-inflammation as seen in ADHD:

    A: TrueB: False

    Question #6
    Which statement is false?

    A: Omega-3 EPA is particularly abundant in phospholipid outweighing omega-3 DHA levels by several hundred-foldB: Phospholipid DHA regulates ion pumps and channels on cell membranesC: Bauer and colleagues (2014) found increased EPA supplementation reduces cognitive effort relative to performance over DHAD: None of the above is false

    Question #7
    A possible explanation for Bloch and colleagues’ (2011) findings that EPA supplementation was significantly correlated with cognitive efficiency over DHA in 699 children with ADHD is (select the most accurate choice):

    A: EPA represents about 1% of neural cell membraneB: Both c & dC: EPA facilitates energy production via mitochondrial enzymatic processesD: EPA levels were increased on mitochondrial membranes

    Question #8
    Omega-3 EPA supplementation has demonstrated significant effects on cognitive function in children with ADHD regardless of dosage:

    A: TrueB: False

    Question #9
    What potential limitations are proposed by the author for studies finding no effect on ADHD cognitive symptoms after supplementing with Omega-3 PUFAs?

    A: Benefits of DHA supplementation may go undetected over the duration of studies as absorption takes substantially longer than EPA.B: The effect of storage on omega-3 quality is unknownC: Smaller trials may lack the power to detect benefits of omega-3 supplementationD: All the above

    Question #10
    What does the author NOT conclude?

    A: Small sample sizes have limited findings of omega-3 benefits for childhood ADHD cognitive functionB: Heterogeneity across studies has limited findings of omega-3 benefits for childhood ADHD cognitive functionC: Supplementation of EPA has demonstrated positive effects on cognition in a learning difficulty subgroup of children with ADHDD: None of the above

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